Body Modification is in the simplest, obvious terms: the voluntary (in this context) modification of the human body.
Tattooing, piercing, cutting, branding, amputation… Some can argue that cosmetic procedures like plastic surgery are body modifications. I’m not so good with explaining this, so here is some explanation that I got from Wikipedia:
Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or phenotype. It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art, for shock value, and as self-expression, among others reasons
☆ Body piercing – Permanent placement of jewelry through an artificial fistula; sometimes further modified by stretching
☆ Ear piercing – The most common type of body modification
☆ Surface Piercing – A surface piercing is a piercing where the entrance and exit holes are pierced through the same flat area of skin.
☆ Pearling – Also known as genital beading
☆ Neck ring- Multiple Neck rings or spiral are worn to stretch the neck (in reality lowering of the shoulders).
☆ Tattooing – Injection of a pigment under the skin.
☆ Eyeball tattooing – Injection of a pigment into the cornea.
☆ Extraocular implant (eyeball jewelry) – The implantation of jewelry in the outer layer of the eye.
☆ Transdermal implant – implantation of an object below the dermis, but which exits the skin at one or more points.
☆ Microdermal implants – the aesthetic appearance of a transdermal implant, without the complications of the much more complicated surgery associated with transdermal implants
Wikipedia on body modification: [♥]